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Knowledge, Education and Lifelong Learning

Academic papers and articles,  discussing the arguments both for and against placements in education, as well as in the wider society.

The Contribution of Adult Learning to Health & Social Capital
Looking at a group of adults between 33 and 42 who undertook a variety of different educational experiences and measuring the effects over a number of indicators that include wellbeing, attitudes and political participation. Benefits were found in a number of factors, from race toleration, to life satisfaction, to giving up smoking. Social capital effects were noted in work-related learning, though not as substantial as academic courses.
Feinstein, L., Hammond, C., Woods, L., Preston, J. and Bynner, J. 2003.
http://www.learningbenefits.net/Publications/ResReps/ResRep8.pdf

The Integrative Principle: Higher Education and Work-Based Learning in the UK
Critique of the accrediting of vocational skills in an academic setting, in that some skills may not be visible in accreditation, and that there is a tension between specificity/relevance to work and transferability in a vocational qualification. A broader question is whether the type of learning done in the workplace can be equated with academic learning. Though a critique of the National Vocational Qualifications approach, this could be invoked to support the use of work placements as involving a unique and distinctive form of learning, one unavailable in an academic setting.
Saunders, M. 1995.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/view/1503529

Assessment in work-based learning: investigating a pedagogical approach to enhance student learning
Theoretical piece about the nature of work-based learning, uses a model with three components: critical reflection, an understanding of the student's own learning and a development of capabilities. It is suggested that the capabilities aspect of the program are less well assessed in work-based learning programs, though this may be less relevant to FTDL5.
Brodie, P. and Irving, K. 2007.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a759304930

Higher Education - More than a Degree
70% of those graduating do not know what they want to do, advocating a wider purpose to Higher Education than merely a narrow economic one. Also suggests that closer links between industry and Higher Education will help enhance the moral dimension of Higher Education.
The Council for Industry and Higher Education 2005.
http://www.cihe-uk.com/docs/PUBS/0503HEMoreThanADegree.pdf

Work based learning and the intellectual capital of universities and employers
Describes work-based learning in terms of intellectual capital - where universities and employers share human and structural capital in a reciprocal agreement. Radical in the way this is seen to be eroding the university's traditional monopoly on Higher Education.
Gamett, J. 2001.
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?l

Thinking about Social Capital
A good overview of the term, includes some of the drawbacks of its use conceptually, but primarily concerned the benefits of usage and policy implications. Social capital is contrasted with Human capital which has a more individualistic and economic focus. A strong case is made for taking this perspective on the 'lifelong learning' trend, which would value informal and workplace learning, and value in terms of the social 'goods' which were produced.
Schuller, T. 2000.
http://www.open.ac.uk/lifelong-learning/papers/

Curriculum studies and the problem of knowledge: updating the enlightenment
Tries to steer a course between the traditional discourse of academia as a distinct, privileged body of knowledge, and post-modernist, relativist views of knowledge which would not privilege academic over vocational knowledge - the broad trend within which work-based learning can be located. It accepts post-modern assertations about the historical and social particularity of knowledge, but maintains that it has some more universalistic qualities as well. It maintains suggests exploring the differentiation between the theoretical and the everyday, and the eliciting of the relationship between the two as the correct course for the 'curriculum of the future'.
Young, M. 2003.
http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/viewpdf.asp?

Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work
Psychological discussion of the different knowledge types used in non-formal learning - theoretical and cogent. Distinctions are drawn between deliberative conscious learning and implicit subconscious learning. Good for conceptualising the difference between work-based and academic learning, though as it points out implicit learning occurs in all learning environments. As an exercise in using deliberative essay and blog writing to reflect upon more implicit and reactive forms of learning in a work setting, the project could be said to be making tacit knowledge explicit and enhancing participants meta-learning.
Erut, M. - no date given.
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?